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Congress expanding FOIA to allow access to more government records

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    WASHINGTON — Congress is moving to reverse one area of the Bush administration’s trend toward secrecy since the 2001 terrorist attacks by expanding the Freedom of Information Act, increasing penalties for noncompliance and making records held by government contractors subject to the law.
    The White House isn’t saying whether President Bush will sign the bill once the House acts on it Tuesday. With a congressional recess starting at the end of the week, that raises the possibility that the act’s first makeover in a decade could become law without his signature. The Senate passed the bill last week.
    The legislation reverses an order by former Attorney General John Ashcroft in the wake of the Sept. 11 attacks instructing agencies to lean against releasing information if there was any uncertainty about how it would affect national security.
    A previously passed version was rewritten this month to meet House concerns about how government agencies would pay for attorneys’ fees when they lose or settle a FOIA lawsuit. That money will now have to come from other programs within each agency.
    Supporting changes in the law were dozens of media outlets, including The Associated Press.
    The bill restores a presumption of disclosure standard committing government agencies to releasing requested information unless there is a finding that such disclosure could do harm.
    Agencies would be required to meet a 20-day deadline for responding to FOIA requests. Their FOIA offices would have to forward requests for information to the appropriate agency office within 10 days of receiving them.
    It they fail to meet the 20-day deadline, agencies would have to refund search and duplication fees for noncommercial requesters. They also would have to explain any redaction by citing the specific exemption under which the blacked-out information qualifies. Nonproprietary information held by government contractors also would be subject to the law.
    The legislation also creates a system for the media and public to track the status of their FOIA requests. It establishes a hotline service for all federal agencies to deal with problems and an ombudsman to provide an alternative to litigation in disclosure disputes.
    Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Patrick Leahy, D-Vt., has been working with the Justice Department on the legislation and has said he expects the president to sign it.
    But as the House vote loomed Tuesday, the White House wasn’t committing the president to any such action.
    Asked whether Bush would sign, veto or ignore the bill, White House spokesman Tony Fratto responded only that the legislation ‘‘is certainly an improvement’’ over previous versions.
    There may be a key reason for the non-commitment: Congress is about to recess — but not adjourn — for the year. Under the Constitution, legislation passed by a Congress technically in session that is not signed by the president within 10 days automatically becomes law.
    This pocket-veto-in-reverse would give Bush some political cover, allowing the FOIA bill to become law without taking the affirmative step of endorsing it.
    The White House, however, wouldn’t say if that is Bush’s plan.
    Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D-Nev., is planning to keep the Senate officially in session by holding a brief — often only seconds long — ‘‘pro forma’’ session every four business days over the winter break to prevent Bush from making recess appointments not subject to Senate confirmation.
    The bill is S. 2488.

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